Publications and Reports

Displaying 11 - 20 of 205
E.g., 20 Sep 2017
E.g., 20 Sep 2017
16 Nov 2015
Background

Laboratory testing is an integral part of day-to-day primary care practice, with approximately 30 % of patient encounters resulting in a request. However, research suggests that a large proportion of requests does not benefit patient care and is avoidable. The aim of this systematic review was to comprehensively search the literature for studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to improve primary care physician use of laboratory tests.

Methods

A search of Pub...

21 Oct 2015

Abstract

Objectives

No data regards lipoprotein particle profiles in obese and non-obese metabolic health subtypes exist. We characterised lipoprotein size, particle and subclass concentrations among metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese and non-obese adults.

Methods

Cross-sectional sample of 1834 middle-aged Irish adults were classified as obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m2). Metabolic health was defined using three metabolic health definiti...

15 Oct 2015

OBJECTIVES:

Preconception maternal bereavement may be associated with an increased risk for infant mortality, although these previously reported findings have not been replicated. We sought to examine if the association could be replicated and explore if risk extended into childhood.

METHODS:

Using a Danish population-based sample of offspring born 1979 to 2009 (N = 1,865,454), we analyzed neonatal (0-28 days), postneonatal infant (29-364 days), and early childhood (1-5 y...

12 Aug 2015

Isolated nocturnal hypertension (INH) is associated with greater mortality and cardiovascular events. Subclinical target organ damage (TOD) is a prognostic marker for cardiovascular events. Our objective is to systematically summarize evidence on the association between INH and subclinical TOD. Observational population studies were considered. INH was defined as nighttime blood pressure (BP) ⩾120 and/or 70 mm Hg with daytime BP <135/85 mm Hg. We systematically searched Pubmed, EMBASE and t...

12 Aug 2015

Abstract

Objectives

Glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurement is recommended as an alternative to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for the diagnosis of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. However, evidence suggests discordance between HbA1c and FPG. In this study we examine a range of metabolic risk features, pro-inflammatory cytokines, acute-phase response proteins, coagulation factors and white blood cell counts to determine which assay more accurately identifies individuals at i...

31 Jul 2015
Abstract

Objective To test whether providing surgeons with peer benchmarked feedback about patient-reported outcomes is effective in improving patient outcomes.

Design Cluster randomised controlled trial.

Setting Secondary care—Ireland.

Participants Surgeons were recruited through the Irish Institute of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, and patients were recruited in hospitals prior to surgery. We randomly allocated 21 surgeons and 550 patients.

Interventio...

22 Jul 2015

Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is a measure of the average volume of red blood cells. The detection of an elevated MCV, termed macrocytosis (with or without anemia), often prompts an extensive and costly work-up for an underlying cause and/or referral to secondary care. Known determinants of macrocytosis listed in textbooks include vitamin B12 and folate deficiency, alcohol use (with or without associated liver disease), hemolysis, hypothyroidism, coeliac disease, drug use, and hematological c...

22 Jul 2015

An association between smoking and elevated MCV has been reported from a number of studies since the 1970s [1-3]. However, knowledge of this relationship, causal or otherwise, has not translated into clinical practice or been highlighted in any of the screening models for macrocytosis. In earlier research [4], which focused on the causes of hematinic deficiency in 1,207 Irish adults, we observed an unexpected independent association between smoking and macrocytosis. The current study examined...

15 Jul 2015

The aim of this study was to estimate the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition in adolescents. Data are from a birth cohort study conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. At the age of 18 years, 4563 adolescents were located, of whom 4106 were interviewed (follow-up rate 81·3 %). Of these, 3974 had complete data and were thus included in our analysis. The variables used in the analysis were measured during the perinatal period, or at 11, 15 and/or 18 years of age....

12 Jul 2015
BACKGROUND:

Depression incurs significant morbidity and confers increased risk of suicide. Many individuals experiencing depression remain untreated due to systemic and personal barriers to care. Guided Internet-based psychotherapeutic programs represent a promising means of overcoming such barriers and increasing the capacity for self-management of depression. However, existing programs tend to be available only in English and can be expensive to access. Furthermore, despite evidence of the...

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